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Friday, December 6, 2013

Atopic disease and the herpes microbiome

Unlike bacteria or fungi, herpes viruses establish life-long infection in the human host through latent genomic persistence within the host cells nuclei and are thus considered part of the human microbiome. The ability of the virus to interact with the human genome influences allergic and atopic disease due to the bias these patients have towards a Th2 profile. Dr. David Dreyfus examined the role of common human herpes viruses on the microbiome of atopic patients, who have more severe and atypical disease when infected (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2013; 132(6): 1278-1286).

The herpes virus Epstein Barr (EBV or mononucleosis) expresses latency in lymphocytes and has co-evolved with humans long enough to encode for a protein that resembles the cytokine IL-10, as well as other cytokines by activating host transcription factors. The author explains that EBV and other herpes viruses encode for microRNAs that cause immunomodulation of distant cells. This lead to studies suggesting that EBV infection early in life is protective against atopic disease compared to infection later in life, where there is a predisposition to atopic disease. Atopic patients that have a primary infection of EBV can have a more severe non-specific rash that can be mistaken for allergic diseases or other infectious diseases and can be misdiagnosed.

Another ubiquitous herpes virus, VZV or shingles, becomes latent in neuronal cells and reactivation risk increases with age as the natural antibodies decline over time. The current VZV vaccine has been successful for a decade, reducing the VZV associated morbidity and mortality especially in the elderly. However, studies suggest that children who receive the vaccine have an increased incidence for atopic disease compared to children that are infected naturally with the virus, suggesting there could be a protective benefit to natural infection. Like VZV, Human Simplex Virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV 2) become latent in the neuron after primary infection of subcutaneous and pulmonary epithelial cells. The author explains that infants and others that are immunodeficient are at high risk of pulmonary syndromes such as bronchitis and pneumonia, and neurologic syndromes such as encephalitis. The most common atypical presentation of the virus is a severe skin rash called eczema herpeticum among atopic patients. This is similar to the severe drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome) seen with the reactivation of HSV6, also referred to as roseola, which is present in both atopic and non-atopic patients. Furthermore, another related herpes virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV) can cause cutaneous symptoms similar to EBV, as well as chronic inflammation and cardiovascular disease due to its latency in macrophages that are associated with vascular inflammation by directly inducing Th2 cytokines.


Molecular evidence suggests that herpes viruses have been co-evolving with the human immune system since before the origin of the adaptive immune system. The herpes microbiome along with environmental factors such as improved global hygiene that prevents the exposure to a variety of components interact with each other to create the atopic phenotype. Dr. Dreyfus emphasizes that this information can positively impact the care for the allergic and atopic patient populations. Clinicians must have a heightened awareness of the various presentations of herpes viruses to avoid unnecessary testing and treatments for drug allergy or autoimmune disease. 

Questions for the author:

What are the effects of the herpes microbiome on other allergic diseases?  Is there an increase in Th2 dependent disease in patients who express viral lesions and reactivation of herpes viruses? 

Regarding the question of effects of herpes on atopic disease, in addition to the references cited in my article particularly regarding an increase in atopic disease in pediatric patients who receive the varicella vaccine vs wild type virus there is a more recent article just published with some more experimental observations on this question:

Sohlberg, E. et al (2013) Cytomegalovirus-Seropositive Children Show Inhibition of an In Vitro EBV infection That Is Associated with CD8+ CD57+ T-cell Enrichment and IFN-gamma. Journal of Immunology 191:5669


7 comments:

  1. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

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    Replies
    1. God bless Dr.Edidia for his marvelous work in my life,my name is rose
      sharon I was diagnosed of HERPES since 2012 and I was taking my
      medications, I wasn't satisfied i needed to get the HERPES out of my
      system, I searched about some possible cure for HERPES i saw a comment
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      as prescribed by him and 14 days later i was cured from HERPES, Dr.edidia
      truly you are great, do you need his help also? Why don't you contact him
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  2. I had high hopes when I contacted drstanleyherbalhome@gmail.com for my herpes cure, but the results have exceeded my fondest dreams. Two different tests with two different doctors both came back negative. And it’s just two weeks i used the medication before i go for test. I’d have never thought herpes can be cured that fast! Finally, someone actually cares about helping people with herpes cure. You are the best.” Contact him for HERPES cure via drstanleyherbalhome@gmail.com.

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  3. I am really happy that i and my husband are cured from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) with the herbal medicine of Dr Segun, i have been suffering from this disease for the past 2 years without solution until i came across the email of this doctor who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me and my husband, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave us his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follow his instructions for use and he ask us to go for a check up after 1 week and 4days which i did, to my greatest surprise our result came out as negative, we are really happy that there is someone like this doctor who is ready to help anytime any day. To all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony stop doubting it and contact this doctor if you really have one and see if he will not actually help you. i am not a stupid woman that i will come out to the public and start saying what someone have not done for me and i know that there are some people out there who are really suffering and hurting their family just because of these diseases here is his contact: dr.segunspelltemple@gmail.com
    Just give him a chance if you will not com out with your own testimony.I am indeed grateful for the help, i will forever recommend you to my friends. He also have the herb to cure

    (1) CANCER,
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    (7) BARENESS/INFERTILITY
    (8) DIARRHEA
    (9) ASTHMA...
    10) HE ALSO HAVE SPELL TO BRING BACK YOUR EX

    ReplyDelete
  4. I am really happy that i and my husband are cured from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) with the herbal medicine of Dr Segun, i have been suffering from this disease for the past 2 years without solution until i came across the email of this doctor who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me and my husband, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave us his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follow his instructions for use and he ask us to go for a check up after 1 week and 4days which i did, to my greatest surprise our result came out as negative, we are really happy that there is someone like this doctor who is ready to help anytime any day. To all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony stop doubting it and contact this doctor if you really have one and see if he will not actually help you. i am not a stupid woman that i will come out to the public and start saying what someone have not done for me and i know that there are some people out there who are really suffering and hurting their family just because of these diseases here is his contact: dr.segunspelltemple@gmail.com
    Just give him a chance if you will not com out with your own testimony.I am indeed grateful for the help, i will forever recommend you to my friends. He also have the herb to cure

    (1) CANCER,
    (2) DIABETES,
    (3) HIV&AIDS,
    (4) URINARY TRACT INFECTION,
    (5) CANCER,
    (6) IMPOTENCE,
    (7) BARENESS/INFERTILITY
    (8) DIARRHEA
    (9) ASTHMA...
    10) HE ALSO HAVE SPELL TO BRING BACK YOUR EX

    ReplyDelete
  5. I was suffering from HERPES Simplex Virus, i suffered, until i meet Dr Harrison the great Traditional healer who cured me. you can visit his website for more information. www.sacredspelltemple.wix.com/natural-remedies or send him an email SACREDSPELLTEMPLE@HOTMAIL.COM you can also add him on.whattapp with +2348079540032.you can email me on simranmendy@gmail.com for more information.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Am Success Puga from USA. I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES patient in the world i never believed that their could be any complete cure for HERPES or any cure for HERPES,i saw people’s testimony on blog sites of how DR Ekpiku prepare herbal cure and brought them back to life again. i had to try it too and you can,t believe that in just few weeks i started using it all my pains stop gradually and i had to leave without the HERPES DRUGS the doctor gave to me. Right now i can tell you that few months now i have not had any pain,delay in treatment leads to death. Here is his email:ekpikuspellhomeofgrace@hotmail.com or ekpikuspellhomeofgrace@gmail.com his WHATSAPP number is +2348073673757
    DOCTOR Ekpiku CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-

    1. HIV/AIDS
    2. HERPES
    3. CANCER
    4. ALS
    5. Hepatitis B
    6. Parkinson

    ReplyDelete