Thursday, December 27, 2012
Monday, December 3, 2012
Thursday, November 1, 2012
Thursday, October 4, 2012
Tuesday, October 2, 2012
Review highlights include:
• Cluster analysis of clinical asthma phenotypes by several research groups, including the consistent finding of eosinophilic, high TH2 cytokine profile asthma and non-eosinophilic, low TH2 cytokine profile asthma.
• Evidence confirming therapeutic efficacy of systemic and targeted therapies in eosinophilic, high TH2 asthma.
• Reports of the successful use of biomarkers in characterizing response to therapy, including recent research involving omalizumab, mepolizumab, and lebrikizumab for patients with severe and/or uncontrolled asthma characterized using clinical and biomarker indices.
• Specific evidence for applying FENO, induced sputum, IgE, and periostin to treatment decision making.
Ingram and Kraft note that traditional and targeted therapies are effective only for eosinophilic, TH2 high asthma patients, leaving a gap in our knowledge about how to effectively manage the low TH2 profile patients. They also remark that TH2 inflammation in asthma patients may be more effectively assessed through the use of combinations of inflammatory and molecular markers, rather than relying on observations of single biomarkers. They conclude by commenting that application of the molecular features of asthma phenotypes, in combination with clinical evidence, is being used to predict response to intervention. They follow by pointing out that the current knowledge base has defined a gap in managing asthma that does not present with a TH2 dominant signature.
Thursday, August 30, 2012
Wednesday, August 1, 2012
They found mast cells numbers were highly increased in NP epithelium and glands, in particular, as compared to UT from CRSsNP and control subjects. Further, the MC populations in NP were distinguishable on the basis of their protease profile. Mast cells from the NP epithelium were tryptase-carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3)-positive/chymase-negative, while MC from NP glands were tryptase-CPA3-chymase-positive.
The authors note clear expansion in MC numbers that they suggest could be the result of increased migration and accumulation as well as proliferation. Since mast cell tryptase can activate protease-activated receptor (PAR) 2, which facilitates allergic inflammation, and mast cell chymase can activate PAR-1 signaling and is a potent glandular secretagogue, the results of Takabayashi et al suggest that mast cells localized in submucosal glands may be well positioned to drive important features of the inflammatory response associated with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyp formation.
Tuesday, July 31, 2012
Thursday, June 28, 2012
Friday, June 1, 2012
Monday, April 30, 2012
Friday, April 6, 2012
Lau et al. (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012;129:1040-1047) report their findings from a controlled trial of heat-inactivated bacterial lysate treatment in infants with inherited risk of atopy in this month’s issue. Citing proof-of-concept research and epidemiological reports on lowered atopy incidence in rural populations, the authors hypothesize that intentional exposure to heat-inactivated bacteria might confer protection from atopy. Their study included infants with one or both parents with a history of atopic disease (allergic rhinitis, eczema, asthma or combination).
Infants were treated orally with heat-killed Echerichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis lysate for 7 months, then followed until age 3 years. The primary outcome was the presence or absence of atopic dermatitis (AD) at the end of treatment. At 31 weeks, only 10% of treated infants with single parent risk developed AD compared to 19% of infants treated with placebo. The effect was even greater in infants with paternal atopy only. Treatment effect was strongest in infants with a single parent with allergic rhinitis. No effect was observed for infants with allergic asthma, AD, or combination.
Though Lau et al. measured gut flora during the treatment period, there was no measurable alteration in flora that could be attributed to treatment. Additionally, total serum IgE levels did not differ between the two groups. The authors conclude that their study shows a possible differential atopy risk associated with paternal heredity.