Thursday, October 13, 2016
Asthma in the inner city: Three Analyses of the APIC Study
Asthma is an incredibly variable disease with its impact on people and molecular and cellular mechanisms what it does to the lungs and rest of the body. This month’s issue of JACI features three articles by Zoratti et al (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016; 138(4): 1016-1029), Pongracic et al (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016; 138(4): 1030-1041), and Liu et al (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016; 138(4): 1042-1050), covering asthma among inner city children. They examine factors that determine the phenotype, severity and disease control, based on data they obtained from the Asthma Phenotypes in the Inner City (APIC) study, which looked at children aged 6 to 17 years and examined them every 2 months for one year. Even though their techniques are all slightly different, all three analyses determined that allergic inflammation was a very significant contributor to disease. In addition to rhinitis, pulmonary physiology also influenced severity and ability to control asthma despite guideline-based therapy. Body mass index and environmental tobacco exposure were also quite significant in explaining severity of and ability to control disease activity, respectively. Interestingly, Vitamin D did not have a significant effect on the control of asthma. Altogether, the results of the APIC study provide insights into what strategies can be implemented to bring asthma under better control in inner cities. Identifying those who are most at risk through the results of these studies, and targeting allergic inflammation, both in the upper or the lower respiratory passages, may help to reduce the burden of asthma.